Metrology Meaning |What is Metrology?

It is the scientific study of measurement. Metrology is the branch of science dedicated to measurement

Metrology Definition:-

It is defined as the science of measurement, primarily concerned with the establishment, reproduction, conservation & transfer of units of measurement & their standards.

Basics Of Metrology Audio Tutorial:-

Audio Tutorial of Metrology Basics

Importance of Metrology:- 

  • To achieve standardization.
  • To find tolerances.
  • Used for minimizing the cost of the inspection.

Types of Metrology:-

  • Legal/Scientific metrology.
  • Deterministic/Industrial metrology.

Classification of Metrological Instruments:-

Classification of Metrological Instruments

Terms Which Relates with Metrology


Checking of quality characteristics of a given job.

Checking Characteristics of job

Take Action after checking

Need for inspection:-

  • Quality Output.
  • Change in technology.
  • Mass production.
  • Save money.
  • Interchangeability.
  • To develop a reputation for the company.

Meanwhile, Interchangeability can refer to Interchangeable parts, the ability to select components for assembly at random, and fit them together within proper tolerances.


Interchangeability - best example
Best Example Of Interchangeability

Accuracy & Precision:-


The ability to do something in an exact manner. It is nothing but a degree of correctness.


Precision refers to the closeness of two or more measurements to each other.

metrology-Accuracy & Precision
Difference between accuracy and precision (1)

Difference between accuracy and precision
Difference between accuracy and precision (2)



All of the above figures show exactly what is accuracy and what is precision.


Firstly sensitivity is the ability to receive sensations.

Moreover, Sensitivity is the ability to measuring instruments to detect small variations in a quantity being measured.

Best example of sensitivity


  • Validation of specific techniques and measurements of equipment.
  • Comparison of measurements with a known standard or other devices.
  • Scientifically assessing a system’s response to known controlled signal inputs.

Define Calibration:-

Firstly calibration is defined as a set of operations that establish, under specified conditions, the relationship between values indicated by a measuring instrument, and the corresponding standard.


In addition, The Calibration process is a comparison of one instrument’s response with that of a reference instrument of known response and accuracy.


It is the ability of the measuring instrument to give the same value every time, the measurement of a given quantity is repeated under the same conditions.


 It is related to taking reference to a national or international standard.


It is the quantitative measure of the closeness of the agreement, between the results of measurement of the same measured. Carried out by changing the method of measurement, observer, measuring instrument, location, condition of use, time, etc.

Different Types Gauges In Metrology:-

1.Radius Gauge:-

metrology instrument-radius gauge
Measurement using Radius Gauge

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2.Screw pitch gauge:-

metrology instrument-screw pitch gauge
Screw Pitch Gauge

Measurement using screw pitch gauge
Measurement using Screw Pitch Gauge

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3.Filler Gauge

metrology instrument-Filler Gauge
Filler Gauge

Measurement Using Filler gauge
Measurement Using Filler Gauge

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Errors In Metrology Instruments 

The difference between the true value of the size is measured and the value found by measurement is called Error.

Types of error in measuring instruments:-

  • Systematic error/controllable error
  • Random error
  • Temp.Environmental error
  • Dirt error
  • Support error
  • Contact pressure error
  • Parallax error
  • Sine error
  • Cosine error

Concept of least count of measuring instruments:-

Least Count/Resolution:-

The smallest dimension that can be read on an instrument is called as least count of that instrument.

For example, in below mention photographs of the scale, visually we can conclude that there are 5 lines between 0 and 1, which means 1 line indicates 2mm means 0.2cm.

Therefore the minimum reading that can be measured on this instrument (scale) is 0.2cm.

Hence we conclude that this scale has the least count of 0.2cm.

LC(Least Count)
Concept of Least Count

Metrology Instruments

Vernier Calipers:-

metrology instrument-vernier caliper
metrology instrument-vernier caliper

metrology instrument-vernier calipers
Simple Vernier Caliper
Two Scales on vernier caliper one is the main scale and another is vernier scale

Therefore, as a result

The formula for Least Count & Total Reading (TR) On Vernier:-

metrology instrument-vernier calculation
metrology instrument-vernier calculation


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metrology instrument-micrometer
Simple Micrometer

Two Scales on micrometer one is the main scale and another is circular scale

Therefore, as a result

The formula for Least Count & Total Reading (TR) On Micrometer:-

metrology instrument-micrometer calculation
metrology instrument-micrometer calculation


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Make sure you also check our amazing article on Quality.

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